University Catalogues

Global Studies (GLS)

GLS 100 US Government and Politics     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

Introduces the institutions, background and processes of American national government. Surveys the governmental structures created by the Constitution as well as the informal substructures (parties, interest groups, etc.) that animate our political system.

Typically Offered: Fall and Spring

GLS 101 Globalization     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Globalization

The world is becoming increasingly interconnected and interdependent. The revolutionary changes in information and communication technology and the collapse of the Cold War international system in recent decades have been driving the flow of goods, services, capital, people, ideas and images across the globe at an unprecedented speed. This course begins with an introduction defining what globalization is and is not, why everyone is talking about it, and what forces are pushing it. The course then engages the students in the theoretical debates about the nature of globalization, after which it examines the political, economic, security and cultural impact of globalization. Furthermore, we will use the case of China, India, the United States and the developing world will be used to show how nations react to the challenges of globalization.

Typically Offered: Fall and Spring

GLS 102 Politics and Power Worldwide: Intro to Comparative Political Analysis     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

How and why do politics, policy and power vary across countries? How can we explain the cross-national similarities and differences? What are their consequences? This course introduces students to the theories, methods and concepts necessary to study Comparative Politics, including political regimes (such as democracies and dictatorships), elections, revolutions, and patterns of social inequality. It is designed to help students engage with the historical, cultural, and economic dimensions of political power and political change. Students develop the analytic tools to better understand the variety of states, political institutions and processes, and economic models in a comparative, cross-national perspective.

Typically Offered: Fall and Spring

GLS 105 US State and Local Government and Politics     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

Subnational governments (localities, states, regions) are involved in tackling many of the most challenging problems facing nations and are on the front lines responding to social and economic change. This course will help students understand how subnational institutions and decision-makers operate, what kinds of public policies they produce, how they interact with the national government, and how the balance of power between subnational and national government shifts over time.

Typically Offered: Fall and Spring

GLS 110 Global Regions     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Globalization

This survey course will examine the worlds major global regions, adopting a geographic perspective to better understand contemporary global landscapes, people and events. In other words, the course will consider the ways in which attributes of location and geography underlie cultural, economic and political circumstances around the world. For each region, associated themes are discussed. For example, North Africa/Southwest Asia tends to be associated with oil and Islam, while North America is often associated with themes of urbanization and mobility. Region-centered class materials and discussions are then complemented by students country-specific current events studies that narrow the scale of analysis and thereby reinforce knowledge acquired in the course.

Typically Offered: Fall and Spring

GLS 114 Cross-Cultural Understanding     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Culture, Change, and Behavior

Cross cultural understanding is at the heart of international relations, business transactions, and community development, and it is a necessary skill set in any career. Our languages and cultures shape the way that we see the world around us. This course can help students cross these perceptual bridges in order to more effectively connect with people of different backgrounds. Students will be challenged to develop and clarify their own concept of culture and see how differences and similarities in this concept affect how we relate to one another. Elements of several specific cultural contexts are examined, and strategies for effective understanding are developed and applied through readings, case studies, and experiential exercises. The course also includes interactive activities, films, and small group discussions.

Typically Offered: Fall and Spring

GLS 116 International Relations     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Globalization

This survey course introduces students to International Relations (IR) as a field of study in political science. Students will learn key terms, analytical tools and theories of IR, through which they can better understand and analyze important issues in global politics and the world economy. The course begins with an overview of the central themes, core principles and key concepts of IR, as well as the changing nature of the international system in both the pre-Cold War and post-Cold War eras. It discusses various theoretical approaches of IR and then focuses on several key issue areas, including peace and security, conflict and terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, international cooperation and organizations, international law and regimes, global trade and finance, relations between developed and developing regions, poverty and economic development, and the challenges of managing the environment, resources, and technological and information revolution in the age of globalization.

Typically Offered: Fall and Spring

GLS 205 Social Policy     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Race, Gender, and Inequality

The United States stands out in international comparison for the degree to which it has relied on the private sector to provide social benefits, such as healthcare and pensions, to its citizens. The course will begin by exploring the courses and consequences of this heavy reliance on the private sector for the provision of public benefits. The course will then consider the ways in which this trend continues to strengthen as policymakers increasingly emphasize the privatization of social policy. In particular, the course will consider current social policy debates that emphasize shifts in the role of the private sector: Should social security be privatized? Who should provide health insurance and who should pay for it? Should employers be obligated to pay a living wage? Would market-based reforms improve public schools?

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 225 Urban Politics and Policy     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Race, Gender, and Inequality

This course explores the political context in which officials develop and implement public policy in urban areas. We consider the historical underpinnings of the contemporary urban landscape and the way in which public policy has shaped the operation of urban housing and labor markets with intended and unintended consequences for the economic health of urban areas. We evaluate current economic development strategies employed by local officials in order to revitalize their cities and regions, considering the political imperatives behind different choices and assessing the relative promise of different approaches. In addition, we consider a number of other public policies designed to address urban problems (e.g. transportation, housing, education) and evaluate their political feasibility and effectiveness.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 226 US Foreign Policy     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Globalization

Examines briefly the historical trends in U.S. foreign relations. Devotes major attention to the forces affecting the development of foreign policy and the problems facing the United States worldwide since World War II.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 228 Science, Technology & Society     (3 credits)

This course can count for the Arts/Sciences or Humanities/Social Sciences elective.
Context and Perspectives: Value, Ethics, and Society

The course offers the students a general conceptual framework and analytical tools to understand, analyze, and interpret the role of science and technology in business, in government, and society as a whole through a lense of political decision-making. In particular, this course focuses on the role of science and technology in economic and social development, to which government- and other political decision-making contributes or can mitigate. This course regards science & technology as a tool, as a driver, and as an outcome of economic and social development, as well as business and public decision-making.

GLS 230 Politics and Public Policy     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

This course provides an introduction to the making of public policy. The first part of the course considers questions about the appropriate role of government and why and when do we need public policy? The course then examines the broad context for policymaking in specific countries and considers a number of important and difficult questions: What determines which of the many issues that might command popular attention actually make it to the political agenda? What is political influence and how do we identify who has it? How do various organized interests like labor and business shape policy choices? How do the various institutions of government affect the types of policies that are considered and adopted? How do ideas and culture influence the nature of government intervention in society and the economy? In order to answer these questions, students will analyze case studies of current policy debates.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 236 Campaigns and Elections     (3 credits)

Pre-Req: 21 completed or in-progress credits.

Examines political campaigns and elections in the United States and other democracies. The course covers the core principles and practices of modern campaigns, including who runs for office and why; how are campaigns organized; what makes a good campaign strategy, and what is the best way to communicate a theme to the voters; how are campaigns financed; what is the impact of money, polling, political advertising, and grassroots mobilization; how is technology transforming campaigns; and how do voters make their electoral decisions? These questions will be answered by closely tracking and analyzing current races, assessing the performance of the news media, comparing the U.S. electoral system with systems abroad, suggesting reforms for the U.S. system, and discussing the implications of the most recent election outcomes for future governing and policymaking.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 237 The U.S. Presidency     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

This course examines the office of the presidency in the US political system, and its role in public policy and international affairs. It surveys the institutional development and current operation of the presidency, presidential leadership, and the interaction between the two. Additional topics include the institutional framework within which the president operates; the relationship between the presidency and other political branches; the interaction of the presidency and the party system; and the processes of nominating and electing the president. The course also places the U.S. presidency in a comparative, international perspective.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 238 Immigration     (3 credits)

Context & Perspectives: Race, Gender, & Inequality

Considers America's love-hate relationship with its immigration legacy - a nation of immigrants that now favors stricter immigration policies. Focuses on the country's immigration legacy, immigration institutions, legal and undocumented immigration, political refugees and human rights issues at America's borders. It also examines foreign policy influences on immigration policy and places immigration within a global context to examine the origins of immigration as well as international migration patterns.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 240 Special Topics: Global Studies     (3 credits)

Permits students to study selected topics in Global Studies. (Allows repetition for credit).

Typically Offered: As needed

GLS 242 Current Political Issues     (3 credits)

Focuses on a specific current event or public policy debate at the forefront of U.S. or international politics. The course will examine current issues in their political context, with emphasis on the actors, institutions or organizations, and processes that shape them. Topic changes: With department approval, course may be taken more than once.

GLS 243 The Developing World     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Globalization

This course centers the histories, voices and experiences of peoples, societies and states of ‘the developing world’. How did communities, regions and peoples of the world come to be unequal? What does development mean in the shadow of colonial and decolonial experiences and traumas? What processes, actors, institutions, and forces have contributed to mal- and underdevelopment? How might they be challenged, reformed, or mitigated? Through critical analysis of texts, film and other media, this course explores the cosmologies, ideologies, policies, practices and events that shape the diverse trajectories of peoples and communities around the world. This course will explore the visions, tropes and paradigms that have shaped the fates and lives of ‘Global South’ citizens while also exploring the spaces and strategies of subversion that might yield emancipatory outcomes. The course focuses on colonial, anti- colonial, post-colonial, and de-colonial history and thought.

Typically Offered: Fall and Spring

GLS 245 Power, Politics & Policy in International Development     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

How do global governance institutions and international actors shape and implement policy in international development? How should we think about the UN & Bretton Woods (World Bank/IMF) institutions in light of new emerging actors and institutions such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and the BRICS New Development Bank? What are different approaches and conceptions of development; whose interests do they serve? This course examines the history, politics & processes of policymaking in international development. Taking a global public policy approach, we examine historical and contemporary debates in development theory and practice and explore various thematic policy areas such as: fiscal & monetary; social enterprise & industrial policy; health & environment; trade, aid, infrastructure and agriculture.

GLS 248 Media and Politics     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

This course analyzes the role of the media in politics and its relationship with the public, business, government and candidates for office in a democratic society. The course will examine the role and structure of the news media as a political and economic institution in the United States and other democracies and how it is being transformed by the "alternative" media, new technologies and globalization; the conventions and controversies associated with the journalism profession, including news reporting and the newsgathering process, questions of bias and objectivity, investigative journalism, and news coverage of political campaigns, public policy, and global affairs; news-making strategies and the effects that media have on citizens' attitudes and behaviors.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 251 Latin American Cinema     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Culture, Change, and Behavior

The course will look at how Latin American cinema addresses issues of cultural identity, history, politics and society, and will investigate how this cinema fits into the larger socio-historical-political context of Latin America in our modern globalized world. One of the central objectives of this course is to consider the ways in which cinema has shaped perceptions and understandings of recent and contemporary Latin American experiences for audiences inside and outside of Latin America. In addition, students will learn about styles, forms and techniques of Latin American film production and how various films have influenced as well as been influenced by recent history, politics, violence and culture in Latin America and the Latin American diaspora. One of the goals of te course is to identify key themes and styles of representation in Latin American cinema and investigate the ways in which this cinema expresses the concerns and experiences of Latin Americans.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 255 Global Commerce and Human Rights: Short-Term Program to Chile     (3 credits)

This course will look at Chile as a test case for global commerce and a free market economy, noting the benefits and opportunities that are available to Chileans who live in a nation whose recent governments have embraced a liberal marketplace and free trade, as well as the hardships that the Chilean people and their environment have endured as a result of such unrestricted free trade combined with a lack of human rights, social services and environmental protections. Staying in Santiago, Temuco and Renaca while visiting some of the surrounding coastal and mountainous regions in central and south-central Chile, students will speak with representatives from the Central Bank of Chile, the Santiago chapter of the Association of Relatives of the Detained-Disappeared, the Mapuche indigenous people of Chile, a journalist and communications professor, a filmmaker and blogger, and a TV journalist/host, among others.

GLS 262 Politics in the Middle East     (3 credits)

This course examines the modern (post-World War I) origins of states in the Middle East and attempts to explain the various forces at flux, which determine the national and regional politics of the region. For the purposes of this course, the Middle East is defined as the Arab countries of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, and the non-Arab countries of Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course will also consider non-state actors such as the Kurds and the Palestinians, and their relations with the states that they operate in.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 270 Contemporary Europe     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

The course offers a topical and regional approach to the geography of contemporary Europe. The topical --or thematic-- approach investigates Europes complex physical, cultural, economic and political landscapes. The course will focus upon contemporary issues including European Union integration and the competing forces of devolution, as well as the Euro, the welfare state, tourism management and environmental issues. The ultimate objective of the course is to build a fundamental understanding of Europes landscapes, diverse populations and contemporary issues, and for each student to develop a geographic expertise on one European state. This course may be offered with an intensive travel component to Europe over spring or summer break.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 272 European Politics and Societies     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

The course introduces students to the governments, politics and major political issues that concern the people and countries of the European Union. The goal is to help students develop a solid understanding of individual countries as well as the evolving project of European integration. Topics may include the historical patterns of political development; societal characteristics; political parties and party systems; governing arrangements; political economy concerns such as markets and regulation, labor relations and the welfare state; political participation and political culture; and the interaction of regional, national and European Union politics.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 276 Case Study: Transforming Economies of Europe: Short-Term Program to Europe     (3 credits)

This travel-embedded course examines the complex political, economic and cultural changes taking place in Central and Eastern European economies as they re-join the global economy after decades of isolation. This course looks at the challenges facing former centrally-planned economies as they attempt to converge with those of the European Union. Course material is drawn from the region as a whole, but one or more countries are chosen as the primary focus of attention. The course features experiential learning in one or more countries within the region, and these may include the Czech Republic, Poland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, (eastern) Germany, or another location that illustrates the course content. This course may be taken multiple times for credit when traveling to different locations.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 280 Gender & Politics Worldwide     (3 credits)

Context & Perspectives: Institutions and Power

Around the globe, gender shapes who is represented in politics, who wields political power and to what ends. Gender also intersects with other forms of identity—including national, racial, ethnic, religious, and sexual identities—to stitch patterns of political inequality. This course investigates how gender and politics interact in different national and international contexts. In particular, it asks why men hold more political power than women do and what harms and helps women’s access to power. It also examines why some countries have achieved greater gender equality in politics than others, and when and how gender (in)equality matters for political and policy outcomes. It draws on research, trends and examples from a variety of countries and world regions. Students learn how research is conducted in the field of gender and politics, and develop analytical and critical-thinking skills needed to evaluate existing research.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 298 Experimental Course in Global Studies     (3 credits)

Experimental courses explore curriculum development, with specific content intended for evolution into a permanent course. A topic may be offered twice before it becomes a permanent course. Students may repeat experimental courses with a different topic for credit.

Typically Offered: As needed

GLS 299 Experimental Course in Global Studies     (3 credits)

This course can count for the Arts/Sciences or Humanities/Social Sciences elective.

Experimental courses explore curriculum development, with specific content intended for evolution into a permanent course. A topic may be offered twice before it becomes a permanent course. Students may repeat experimental courses with a different topic for credit.

Typically Offered: As needed

GLS 303 Democracy or Authoritarianism? Political Regimes in Global Perspective     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Globalization

This course explores why some countries are democratic while others are not, and why some democracies survive while others return to authoritarian rule or hover in an ambiguous state of neither true democracy nor outright authoritarianism. Focusing on contemporary political regimes around the world, the course analyzes how and why transitions from authoritarian rule toward democracy occurred in recent decades and the challenges and challengers new democracies face. Furthermore, it examines why democracies breakdown and contemporary challenges to established democracies, often referred to as democratic backsliding. The course covers potential economic, social, cultural and political explanations.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 312 International Organizations     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Institutions and Power

This course examines the intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations working in the field of economic and social development. With the increasing interdependence of states and the globalization of the world economy, new international institutions are developing. The course will study the historical development, the contemporary operation, and the contributions of organizations such as the United Nations, European Union, World Trade Organization, United Nations Development program and Oxfam. Since sustainable development is a primary activity of international organizations today, the course will focus on development projects and activities in Africa. The course provides an understanding of the work of international organizations in the field of development and of the practical skills required to work in international governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 315 Human Rights in Global Media     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Value, Ethics, and Society

This course looks at how media covers themes of human rights across the globe. It focuses primarily on documentary and feature films, but includes television, radio, print journalism, music, poetry, textiles and the Internet, and will explore styles, forms and techniques of media production and reception. Many films and videos will be in languages other than English, with English subtitles. The course examines how media influence and are influenced by recent history, politics, violence and culture in different parts of the world, with emphasis on media influence in judicial human rights cases. The course will emphasize team projects, fieldwork and student creativity.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 320 Human Rights and Global Governance     (3 credits)

This course introduces students to key debates about human rights and global governance. An understanding of these topics is necessary for everyone, and especially for those who aspire to lead in a global economy. Potential topics to be discussed include the nature of human rights, economic rights, rights for individuals and groups, the value of democracy, colonialism and self-determination, the significance of national citizenship, and global justice. 

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 325 Global Transportation and Tourism     (3 credits)

Context and Perspectives: Globalization

This course introduces the fundamentals of the global tourism and hospitality industries, emphasizing the role of all modes of passenger transportation. The semester is organized into five broad topics: tourism principles, history and distribution of tourism, tourism transportation, tourism impacts, and tourism research and marketing. The course pays special attention to the facilitation of tourism by ever-evolving passenger transportation technologies as well as how the industry is affected by events such as conflicts, terrorism and natural disasters. From a spatial perspective, the course also looks at the many economic, social and environmental impacts of tourism upon destinations. Students apply course concepts by researching the tourism industry in one specific country and sharing their insights with the class. The ultimate objective is to develop a fundamental knowledge of the industry and to obtain skills for involvement in a variety of capacities.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 326 Terrorism & National Security     (3 credits)

This course introduces students to contemporary terrorism and the strategic challenges it poses for national security policy. The course analyzes the causes of terrorism; terrorist ideology; the categorization of international and domestic terrorist groups; how terrorist groups affect the development of national counter-terrorism policy; amongst other topics. While focusing primarily on modern terrorist groups, it also analyzes the often historically-grounded causes and development of these groups, and their demands.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 330 Politics of Risk     (3 credits)

This course provides an introduction to the governance of public risks or large-scale hazards and disasters impacting a broad cross-section of society. It surveys the policies and practices used to prepare for, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the damage done by emerging diseases, natural disasters, environmental hazards, technological incidents, and other naturally occurring and human-made problems. This course will help students understand how nations, international institutions, non-governmental entities, and even private organizations work to identify and, subsequently, manage risks and hazards. Special attention is paid to the tension between preparing for emerging problems and responding to disaster events. The course will also investigate the various barriers to effective crisis management.

Typically Offered: Once a year

GLS 333 Politics Through Film     (3 credits)

Pre-Req: 21 credits or higher (i.e. sophomores and above)
Context and Perspectives: Race, Gender, and Inequality

This course develops a deeper understanding of politics in the United States and democratic theory through an analysis and interpretation of several films for its critical portrayal of American society. The films selected for the class reveal significant limitations and deficiencies between the way foundational concepts such as representative democracy, freedom, individualism, equality, capitalism, and the American Dream are expressed in theory and how they are viewed to work in practice. Also addressed are enduring political controversies such as competing views of human nature, the rationale for government, the balance between freedom and order, the government’s responsibility for reducing social inequalities and achieving racial justice, justifications for war, capitalism’s compatibility with democratic values, and the accessibility of the American Dream for all.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 335 Contemporary Issues in Global Politics     (3 credits)

This course focuses on a specific current event or public policy debate at the forefront of international politics. This course examines specialized topics in the Global Studies field, focusing on those that are both critical and timely. The issues will be framed in a global political context, with emphasis on the actors, institutions or organizations, international systems, decision-making processes and interactions that shape them. The topic changes: With department approval, course may be taken more than once.

GLS 398 Adv Experimental Course in GLS     (3 credits)

Experimental courses explore curriculum development, with specific content intended for evolution into a permanent course. A topic may be offered twice before it becomes a permanent course. Students may repeat experimental courses with a different topic for credit.

Typically Offered: As needed

GLS 399 Adv Experimental Course in GLS     (3 credits)

Experimental courses explore curriculum development, with specific content intended for evolution into a permanent course. A topic may be offered twice before it becomes a permanent course. Students may repeat experimental courses with a different topic for credit.

Typically Offered: As needed

GLS 401 Directed Study in Global Studies     (3 credits)

Allows superior students to pursue independent study in a specialized topic under the guidance of a faculty member. May be repeated for credit.

Typically Offered: As needed

GLS 402 Directed Study in Government     (3 credits)

Permits advanced students to study special topics. May be repeated for credit.

Typically Offered: As needed

GLS 403 Model United Nations     (3 credits)

Pre-Req: One GLS course or instructor permission

What is the impact of the United Nations on the world today? How does it contribute to peace, development, and human rights? Students in the seminar will learn about the operation of the United Nations, will research an issue currently before the United Nations, and will participate in the Model Security Council where they serve as ambassador for a member state. This Model Security Council will develop students personal skills for researching, conducting parliamentary procedure, negotiating with other countries, public speaking and resolution writing. The reading, discussion, research and Model Security Council participation will enable you to understand the changing nature of global society and the role the United Nations plays in this new world.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 404 Seminar in Global Studies     (3 credits)

This course focuses on several topics of current global significance. The emphasis is on issues that are rooted in specific geographies and economies, but are also affected by the changing world situation. The issues chosen may change from semester to semester. A selective, in-depth approach is taken to examine in an international context topics and cases that are of cultural, political, business or economic significance. Based on their background and interests, students will propose, develop and present their own research project or case. The course is designed to encourage students to contribute and synthesize concepts and ideas gained from previous courses, and to develop more depth and sophistication in applying their ideas and skills in analyzing contemporary global issues. May be repeated for credit.

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 405 Seminar in Government     (3 credits)

Pre-Req: 60 credits or higher (i.e. juniors or seniors only)

The United States Congress is the “first branch” of government under Article I of the U.S. Constitution. Its primary goals are to make the laws of the nation and to represent citizens’ in national politics. To understand how Congress and its members are performing as both representative and policymaking institutions, this course examines the motivations of members of Congress; congressional election outcomes; the nature of the representative-constituency relationship; the workings of Congressional institutions, organizational structure, processes, rules, and norms; and the interaction among Congress and other institutions and political actors in the Washington, D.C. policy-making community. This particular section will apply these learning goals to the issue spheres of voting rights and election administration through participation in a simulation of hearings held by the Senate Judiciary Committee.  

Typically Offered: Every two or more years

GLS 421 Internship in Global Studies     (3 credits)

Allows students to apply in business, government or the nonprofit sector knowledge gained in their academic program. The on-the-job experience, in turn, helps students to clarify their interests and career goals. A final paper based on the internship activities helps students to integrate classroom knowledge with real-world experience. In addition to producing a final paper, students are required to attend pre-internship workshops at the Center for Career Services and to meet regularly with a faculty advisor.

Typically Offered: As needed

GLS 422 Internship in Government     (3 credits)

Offers students the opportunity to arrange, in conjunction with the college, employment in a public or nonprofit organization. A major paper will be required.

Typically Offered: As needed